Vol. 18, #5 - February 4, 2013 - Issue #915
- Editor's Corner
- From the Mailbag
- VMware Snapshots
- Tip of the Week
- Recommended for Learning
- Quote of the Week
- Admin Toolbox
- Admin Tools We Think You Shouldn't Be Without
- Events Calendar
- Webcast Calendar
- Register for Webcasts
- VMware Snapshot Resources
- Maximizing VMware's Value
- vBenchmark from VMware Labs
- Best Practices for VMware vSphere 5
- The Case for Larger Than 2TB Virtual Disks and The Gotcha with VMFS (Long White Virtual Clouds)
- System Center 2012 SP1 released
- Windows 8 Start Screen Customization with MDT
- Windows 8 – Customizing the Default Lock Screen
- What's New in Windows Server 2012 Networking? (Part 2)
- Clearing networking and security hurdles of private cloud adoption
- How to ensure VDI network connectivity, security
- Will the new Hyper-V extensible virtual switch change the VM security game?
- VMware Workstation encryption prevents unauthorized VM access
- This Week's Links We Like. Fun Stuff.
- Top 10 Free tools for IT Professionals
Last August in issue #891 Snapshot Snags of this newsletter, we served up a bunch of tips and recommendations concerning managing virtual machine snapshots in a Microsoft Hyper-V environment. Some of our readers asked if we could do something similar for VMware, and since we aim to please we've decided to devote this issue to the topic of VMware snapshots with a guest editorial by well-know expert Erik Zandboer, who is a vSpecialist Technical at EMC Computer Systems (Benelux).
But first, here's a cartoon to waste some of your valuable time at work:
Don't forget to click and drag on the final panel...
I'm on LinkedIn
Before we dig into our mailbag, I just wanted to let readers know that I'm now on LinkedIn and you can feel free to add me to your list of connections:
From the Mailbag
The response from readers to my suggestion that I share some of my weightloss tips that have helped transform me from a fat IT pro to an increasingly fit IT pro has been overwhelmingly positive. In fact, I don't think we've received this much mail from any issue we've published! Here's a small sampling of what we've received:
- I am an overweight IT Manager would love to see some tips. Have started eating better recently, down about 15lbs about 60 more to go...
- After 30 years of hard and stressing IT work, I am in the same situation: 1.83 meter and 115 kilograms. Exactly one kilogram per year linear trend. So, any weightloss tips will be welcome...
- I could use the help with better physical fitness that you mention in WServerNews...
- I would appreciate any information you can share. Your comments sound as if I had written them myself!
- This topic would be an excellent reoccurring addition to the newsletter...
- I would love to hear what you and other "Seat Warriors" do to maintain health...
- Yes, I am a typical IT Pro as you describe. Any tips/info you can provide would be appreciated, as I have just been diagnosed type II and am desperate to do something about it...
- I think it would be great to include some weight loss tips for those of us who have become "thick provision lazy zeroed" over the years. I'm looking forward to the feature...
- One of my first professors once told me that "Once you get "that job", make sure they get you a small chair, because your backside will grow to fill it". He was right, but they got me a big chair. I would love to hear some tips on how you changed your life...
- Reading your headline, I was sure it was about fat clients! LOL! Same boat here and would love any tips...
- I'd be happy to see some -- it would keep me around as a reader longer!
As a result of the widespread interest from our readers in this subject, I'm going to dedicate a couple of editorials in WServerNews over the next several months to sharing some of my weightloss and fitness "secrets". The first of these editorials will be in the March 18th issue and will focus on the eating side of the equation. Then sometime in April I'll talk about the exercising side of things, targeting specifically middle-aged IT pros like myself since we need to be careful before embarking on any new strenuous physical activities. And if there's continued interest I might talk later about things like supplementation and motivation and how these play into the mix of things that can help one successfully transform one's body from stereotypical fat IT pro to OMG is that person REALLY an IT pro??? (lol)
In the Mailbag section of the previous newsletter we included an email from a reader named Roger who works at Verizon about an issue we've discussed several times in this newsletter, namely, the reliability (or lack thereof) of today's hard disk drives. Several readers had more to say on this topic as follows:
I would have to fairly well agree with what Rodger from Verizon stated. I would like to point out that there is a rather nice computer case available which addresses these cooling issues. It is the Corsair Obsidian 800d. Place your liquid cooling solution, such as a Corsair H100i on the roof of the case, with fans sucking air out of the case through the radiator. The case has separate cooling zones to keep everything nice and cool. Definitely the case to have if you want your system to run cool and consequently last. --a reader named Marvin
For more information on the case Marvin is talking about, see here:
I've had this same suspicion for about 5 years or more. The old drives which were slower and cooler never seemed to give up; the newer ones by contrast seem to have much higher failure rates. That's why my home made gamer system has a direct HDD cooler, along with tons of case fans. Seems to me that the major manufacturers of either the drives or systems need to account for the higher temperatures that these drives generate. Thanks for a great e-newsletter! --Robert, a network engineer and Microsoft Certified Professional
Got more feedback on the topic of hard drive reliability, especially in server environments? Email us at [email protected]
And now on to our guest editorial by Erik Zandboer...
VMware snapshots explained
VMware snapshots. Virtually every vSphere administrator uses them, either direct or indirect via backup software (Avamar, vSphere Data Protection, Veeam, PHD virtual and many others). Even products like VMware View and vCloud director use some form of snapshotting (linked clones). But what exactly happens under the covers when we take or remove a VMware snapshot?
Snapshotting in general
The purpose of snapshotting is always the same: You want to create something that appears to be a copy of an original, which you can modify without impacting the original. But there is an extra trick in the snapshot: The data isn't actually duplicated (that would be called a clone), but the original data is still used for both the original and the snapshot. The nice part: You do not need to copy all of the data. The not-so-nice part: You need to do extra work to keep the copy and the original separated, especially as you will continue to receive writes to the data.
This opens up a new discussion: Where and how do you store the data that is written without impacting the original? There seem to be two popular ways of doing this: Copy-on-write and Redirect-on-write.
Copy-on-write will modify the original, but copy the original content to some other place first. So if we write a block of data, the original data in the block we are about to overwrite will be copied out to a safe place, and then the original block is overwritten with the new data.
Redirect-on-write will not touch the original, but will store any writes in a separate place. So any block to be written to the original will simply be written to some safe place, and the original stays intact.
VMware choose the Redirect-on-write method for its snapshots. Looking at how we use these snapshots today, it makes perfect sense: While the snapshot is active, all writes are deflected to a snapshot file and the original remains intact. Perfect for making backups of that original!
How VMware snapshots work under the cover
When you create a snapshot of a virtual disk in vSphere, an empty snapshot file will be created next to the original virtual disk or vDisk. In the VM's configuration there will be a reference to both snapshot file(s) and base disk. Writes go to the snapshot file, while reads will (initially!) come from the original vDisk which we normally call the base disk.
As more writes come in, the snapshot file will grow. In the old days (ESX 2.5 and earlier) this snapshot file would be a true redo log: Each write was stored in the snapshot file no matter what, allowing the snapshot file to grow indefinite. In the new approach (ESX 3.0 and above), the snapshot file will keep just one copy of each block. This means that in the new approach, a snapshot file can only grow up to the same size as its base disk. There has been a persistent rumor, and even today some people will claim snapshots can grow beyond the size of the base disk. See "Quick dive: ESX and maximum snapshot sizes" for a quick debunk of this myth:
A more interesting thought is reading back from a snapshotted vDisk. You cannot just read back from the original disk, as blocks in there may have been rewritten after the snapshot was made. So for every read performed on the vDisk, vSphere will have to check if this block is present in the snapshot file(s). If it is, it is read back from the snapshot file. If it is not, the block will be read back from the base disk.
Because the base disk is untouched in this scenario (nothing is written to it as long as the snapshot is active), it makes perfect sense to use this feature for backing up your data, as this base disk is the point-in-time situation when you took the snapshot. It is a simple and effective way of making backups; basically you just need to copy the file out (and you can as it is only read and not written to at this time).
A vSphere technology called "Changed Block Tracking" or CBT for short makes backups even more effective: CBT is able to deliver a list of all block numbers that were changed between two snapshots. So backup software can make a successful backup on day one from a snapshot, then snapshot again on day 2 and post a request for list of blocks that were touched between the first and the second snapshot. After that it is merely a matter of only reading the changed blocks, as the backup software now knows the rest hasn't changed anyway.
Impact of having snapshots
As you can imagine, having snapshots is never without impact. I already described writes and reads that need to be performed by vSphere when you have a snapshot active on a vDisk:
- WRITE OF A BLOCK-- Writes are put in the current snapshot file. vSphere has to figure out if the block is already in the snapshot or not, which will determine if the block is added or overwritten;
- READ OF A BLOCK -- Determine if the block is available in the snapshot file. If so, return that block. If not, return the block from the base disk (or from a previous snapshot if you have nested snapshots).
Even though vSphere does some smart caching under the covers to quickly discover what sits where, there still is quite some impact in having snapshots. But we still haven't touched on the hardest part: removing the snapshot.
Deleting a VMware snapshot
I think at least 99.9% of all snapshots ever taken with VMware are deleted after some time instead of reverted. I still am not completely happy with the naming convention that is used by VMware here:
- DELETE -- Actually not a delete of the snapshot file, but removal of the snapshot. This means that changes in the snapshot file are actually COMMITTED to the base disk;
- REVERT -- This is actually the delete of the snapshot file. As you can imagine, this will delete any changes made after the time the snapshot was made -- effectively reverting the vDisk back to the time the snapshot was taken.
The older ESX 2.5 naming convention was clearer from a geek's perspective -- the naming convention then was COMMIT or REVERT which is clearer in my opinion.
Reverting is easy -- you delete the snapshot file. Deleting the snapshot ("commit") on the other hand is a pretty hard thing to do. Imagine: You need to commit all of the writes inside the snapshot into the base disk again. To make things even more complex -- you still need to accept writes as well as you are working on the commit…
How VMware deletes/commits a snapshot -- the gory details
So how do you think VMware commits a snapshot to the base disk? Exactly, by making a second snapshot. And a third, a fourth… and so on if needed. So how does this work exactly?
During the removal of a snapshot, VMware needs to somehow accomplish two things:
- Copy the data from the initial snapshot into the base disk; and
- Accept and store writes coming into the vDisk as #1 is running.
VMware solved this problem by creating a snapshot of the snapshot. This second snapshot is used to store the new writes (#2). Following the same logic, the original snapshot now is never written to (like the base disk), so vSphere is free to copy the original snapshot back into the base disk and finally delete that initial snapshot.
Now I hear you thinking: What changed? After the initial snapshot was committed to the base disk and removed, I now have an updated base disk with yet again a snapshot. Actually, nothing changed but the size of the snapshot file.
vSphere will repeat this process as long as it takes, up to a point that the snapshot is extremely tiny. At that point vSphere will hold new writes (like a SCSI BUSY), commit the last few bits from the snapshot into the base disk, remove the last snapshot and then resume I/O. Success: The snapshot is now removed!
As you have seen committing a snapshot ("delete" in vSphere) is a complex matter. Can this go wrong? You bet (for an idea on things that can go wrong, see "Ghostly snapshots: Failed to remove snapshot":
As another cool example, what do you think would happen if I feed the vDisk more writes from the VM than the snapshot commit process can move into the base disk? Exactly, the new snapshot would grow every cycle instead of shrink, and the snapshot would never remove. I did some interesting measurements on this some time ago, but they still are current, see "Performance impact when using VMware snapshots":
In this post large amounts of IOPS can be seen while removing snapshots. I actually managed to configure a system that dropped its read performance to a tiny 5% (!!!) while removing a snapshot. That is where the story comes from that a VM can "freeze" while removing a snapshot. The VM is actually not freezing, but the removal process causes a storage overload that in turn appears to freeze the VM (and any other VMs on those disks!).
A second tricky thing can be forgetting to remove a snapshot. All of a sudden you end up with a 200GB snapshot file, and committing of a snapshot of this size may take days, see "Ye Olde Snapshot":
A third and really scary one is this message in vSphere: "The parent virtual disk has been modified since the child was created". This message has scared many people. It means that the base disk was somehow written to while a snapshot was in place. This is something that should never happen and it will keep VMware from being able to remove the snapshot.
In many cases concerning issues with VMware snapshots I have successfully used VMware Converter: You can actually P2V a virtual machine (V2V) if it is still running ok. The V2V'ed VM will not have any snapshots attached, so you can just use that one and throw away the source VM with the messed-up snapshots after the V2V is completed.
Best practices when using VMware snapshots
Looking at the way VMware snapshots operate, there certainly are some best practices to consider when working with snapshots:
- Snapshots are NOT a backup. Even though some storage vendors will try and sell you that story: They really are not. Remember: The base disk is still the only place of most of the information (note the stressed "only");
- Snapshots have storage impact. Having snapshots require extra IOPS, removing snapshots requires even more IOPS. Limit the number of snapshots you have, and design your storage accordingly if you plan on using snapshots (make sure you have headroom for coping with snapshot impact);
- Snapshots grow. Remove snapshots as soon as possible. Very large snapshots can take days to commit back to the base disk (with days of storage performance impact (see 2));
- Snapshots are dynamically growing files. On block systems (iSCSI, FC) without VAAI support this can cause "LUN locking"; as the VMFS file system where the vDisks live is a shared file system, growing a file on disk requires all other hosts accessing that same LUN to be write disabled for a short period of time. If you have enough snapshots growing on a LUN, at some point the system will be impacted as locking keeps occurring constantly. VMware's VAAI (specifically the atomic locking feature) will solve these issues on block storage (which is why using VAAI is almost a must in View/vCloud Director environments that utilize linked clones).
About Erik Zandboer
I live in the Netherlands and technology has always had my interest, in any shape or form. I do a lot of photography which seems to be strangely connected to techies, and I also have a "weird" hobby building and automating a small piece of jungle in my living room.
I have actually been involved in technology for the past 20 years now and have done many different things professionally. Before I started my career I did some programming for the Atari ST and Amiga systems. Then I got my first job designing embedded hard- and software for Siemens. That was REAL embedded hardware, not Linux on ITX boards ;) . Later on I switched more to software, and worked for companies like ASML, KPN and Imtech. As VMware became more and more popular, I was drawn to this technology and I started to go virtual.
As I gathered knowledge on VMware and related products, I also got more and more into the storage business. I got a consultancy job in virtualization and storage, and I started to evangelize VMware through blogging on www.vmdamentals.com. This blogging site mostly contains technical deepdives on various subjects related to VMware and storage. I was honored to make it into the VMware vExpert program through my blogging. Finally I made the move to work for EMC as a vSpecialist. Since then I have been gaining knowledge on a speed I normally could never have.
You can find more about Erik here:
- Virtualization blog:
- Photography blog:
- Paludarium blog:
Tip of the Week
Here are a few tips on how to keep the lithium ion battery in your laptop, tablet or other mobile device working well for as long as possible (these have been recommended to me by colleagues who are hardware geeks):
- Do not keep your battery at 100% charge at high temperature for a long time. This is the worst possible thing you can do for your battery and will shorten its lifetime considerably. Instead, stop charging it when it reaches 80% of capacity. Note that the capacity decreases over the lifetime of the battery, so this 80% figure is a moving target.
- By the way, this also means that if your device automatically charges its battery whenever you plug the device into an AC outlet, it's best if you don't leave the device plugged in when you need to work on it. Instead, run it on battery power whenever you need to do your work on the device, and only plug it into AC when the battery needs to recharging.
- Don't let the change fall below 10% of capacity. Charging more than 80% or less than 10% both cause chemical stress that can shorten the battery's lifetime.
- Don't keep topping off the charge of the battery by leaving it on the charger whenever the device isn't in use. Instead, charge it when it's charge level is low, and disconnect it from the charger before it becomes fully charged.
- Operate the device so that it discharges the battery at a moderate rate. This might mean turning down the brightness of the display a bit, or lowering the volume when channeling audio through built-in speakers.
- Keep the temperature of the device between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. If you live in the tropics, use a pen and paper and send people letters instead of emails. If you live in the arctic, just try to keep warm and don't worry about keeping in touch with friends. Just kidding!
Contact me at [email protected] if you have a tip you'd like to share with our readers.
Recommended for Learning
Hours of fun (and possibly profit!) from O'Reilly:
Getting Started with MakerBot:
This book is a hands-on introduction to affordable 3D printing can help you get onboard the rapidly growing "prefabrication movement" sweeping across both hobbyists and industry.
Quote of the Week
"All men dream: but not equally. Those that dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act their dreams with open eyes, ti make it possible."
--T. E. Lawrence a.k.a. "Lawrence of Arabia"
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Admin Tools We Think You Shouldn't Be Without
Free Trial: NetWrix Change Reporter Suite, a simple IT infrastructure auditing tool that tracks changes made to all critical IT systems and reports on the "4W detail" – Who changed What, Where and When.
Download SolarWinds free Exchange Monitor that continuously monitors Microsoft Exchange to deliver real-time insight into Exchange services, mail queue sizes, and host server health.
Email Archiving made easy – Exclaimer Mail Archiver provides you with all the benefits of email archiving in a package that’s simple to install, easy to maintain and low cost to own.
Organizations now need the combined power of a scalable on-premise AND cloud based enterprise class email archive to improve productivity, lower TCO and address regulatory requirements.
Iomega StorCenter ix4-200d Network Storage, Cloud Edition offers content sharing with advanced security, and is ideal for small and remote offices, workgroups or home networks:
- Microsoft Lync Conference 2013 on February 19-21, 2013 in San Diego, USA
- Microsoft Management Summit on April 8-12, 2013 at the Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas, USA
- Microsoft TechEd North America on June 3-6, 2013 in New Orleans, USA
- Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference on July 7-11, 2013 in Houston, USA
Add your event
Contact Michael Vella at [email protected] to get your conference or other event listed in our Events Calendar.
Register for Webcasts
Add your Webcast
Contact Michael Vella at [email protected] to get your webcast listed in our Webcasts Calendar.
We'll start with some links to articles and blog posts that include tips about VMware snapshots:
- Virtual machine and VMware snapshot guide (TechTarget - requires registration)
- Best practices for virtual machine snapshots in the VMware environment (VMware Knowledge Base):
- Repackage Faster Using VMWare Snapshots (IT Ninja):
- VMware Snapshots- Tips and Tricks (videocast by Dell and VMware - requires registration):
- My updated series on VMware Snapshots (vSphere-land):
Next, here's some more VMware articles...
Maximizing VMware's Value
From BizTech Magazine comes five tips to build a virtual environment that will become the platform for all your IT projects:
vBenchmark from VMware Labs
From VirtualizationAdmin.com comes this article where David Davis looks at the most recent free tool from VMware labs called vBenchmark:
Best Practices for VMware vSphere 5
From NetApp Tech on Tap comes this post about how the new and updated technologies from VMware and NetApp enable you to virtualize demanding business-critical applications:
The Case for Larger Than 2TB Virtual Disks and The Gotcha with VMFS (Long White Virtual Clouds)
Describes the pros and cons of using large volumes with VMware virtual machines:
And now for some other stuff...
System Center 2012 SP1 released
From the TechNet Flash newsletter comes news that System Center 2012 SP1, the management component of the Cloud OS, now available. Learn what's new in System Center 2012 SP1 and download evaluation software:
Windows 8 Start Screen Customization with MDT
Ben Hunter of The Deployment Guys explains how to customize the start screen for users when deploying Windows 8 using Microsoft Deployment Toolkit:
Windows 8 – Customizing the Default Lock Screen
Ben Hunter also shows how to customize the default lock screen for users when deploying Windows 8:
What's New in Windows Server 2012 Networking? (Part 2)
Deb Shinder on WindowsNetworking.com explores the new features in Hyper-V network virtualization:
Clearing networking and security hurdles of private cloud adoption
The private cloud is a secure way to take advantage of all the benefits the public cloud has to offer. However, networking and security concerns have kept many IT pros from adopting this cloud model. Fortunately, leveraging key tips can help you overcome these private cloud barriers. Learn more inside.
How to ensure VDI network connectivity, security
Before deploying VDI in your organization, be sure your network infrastructure is well-prepared for the move. In this resource, review key insights and tips on checking for VDI network connectivity and security so that you can eliminate potential pain points.
Will the new Hyper-V extensible virtual switch change the VM security game?
The Hyper-V extensible virtual switch, offered in the recent release of Windows Server 2012, is opening the door to a variety of new virtual machine (VM) security products. Access this tip to discover how this change will impact the overall virtualization market, as well as your individual organization.
VMware Workstation encryption prevents unauthorized VM access
Leveraging VMware Workstation encryption can help you protect the data on your VMs from unauthorized users. Inside this exclusive guide, review essential tips and tricks for determining how – and when – to take advantage of this advanced feature.
This Week's Links We Like. Tips, Hints And Fun Stuff
"Let’s just drop it and hope it floats." Launch of the Alaska Region Research Vessel 'Sikuliaq' at Marinette Marine in Wisconsin on October 13, 2012.
Aerobatic pilot Martin Sonka manages to maneuver his airplane in a tilted position, hovering like a helicopter alongside parachutist Petr Mestak.
21 extraordinary dancers deliver a visual spectacle that is at once intricate and stirring.
Some amazing, awesome and funny moments of 2012..
Got fun videos or other links to suggest for this section? Email us at [email protected]
WServerNews - Editors
Mitch Tulloch is Senior Editor of WServerNews and is a widely recognized expert on Windows administration, deployment and virtualization. Mitch was lead author of the bestselling Windows 7 Resource Kit from Microsoft Press and has published hundreds of articles for IT pros. Mitch is also a seven-time recipient of Microsoft's Most Valuable Professional (MVP) award for his outstanding contributions in support of the global IT pro community. Mitch owns and runs an information technology content development business based in Winnipeg, Canada. For more information see www.mtit.com
Ingrid Tulloch is Associate Editor of WServerNews and was co-author of the Microsoft Encyclopedia of Networking from Microsoft Press. Ingrid is also Head of Research for our content development business and has co-developed university-level courses in Information Security Management for a Masters of Business Administration program.